Fitting and machining by Ron Culley

Fitting and machining is a book by Ron Culley. It's the perfect manual for trainees in fitting and machining and related areas, qualified tradespeople and keen home hobbyists.

This is the definitive 'book of the trade' for trainees in fitting and machining and related areas, qualified tradespeople and keen home hobbyists. The practical focus, clear explanations and hundreds of diagrams and photographs make this the most widely accepted text in this area. A comprehensive index ensures the book is easy to use.

Fitting and machining book cover

Featured book: Fitting and machining

By Ron Culley

This is the definitive 'book of the trade' for trainees in fitting and machining and related areas, qualified tradespeople and keen home hobbyists.

Fitting and machining by Ron Culley - Book Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Preface

X Machining Tolerances 38; Working to Drawings 38; Working from Tables 38; Working to Tolerances 39

xi Accuracy of Process, Surface Finish and Tolerance 41; Surface Finish 41; Relationship between Surface Finish and Tolerance 42; Sur­

Useful facts and figures: xiii

Mathematical signs and common abbreviations xiii Conversion factors for common English units xiv Conversion table, mm-inch xv

Areas and related formulae of plane figures xvi

Volumes xviii

Geometrical propositions xx Right-angled triangles xx Trigonometry tables xxi Useful tapers and angles xxvi Machine tapers xxvii

Mechanics xxxi The Principle of Work xxxi; Levers xxxi; Pulleys and Wheels xxxii; Screws xxxiii; Wedges xxxiii; Pascal's Law xxxiv

face Finish, Tolerance and the Machine Process 42; Special Cases Needing Very Good Surface Finish 42

Standards of linear measurement 42; Direct Standards 42; Derived Stan­dards 43

Geometric tolerances 46; Selected Use 46; Specifications on Drawings 46; Applications of Geometric Tolerances 48

1 Workshop hints

General hints 1

Metal fret 1

Hardening and tempering a small object 1

1 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 57; Zinc and Zinc Alloys 57

Bearing materials 58; Friction and Wear 58; Properties of Bearing

Materials 58; Selection of Bearing Material 58; Some Common Bearing Materials 58

Press Iii assembly 1 Turning a sleeve bearing 2 Chatter 2

Selling to marked centre in the lathe 2

2 Safety in the workplace 3

Accidents 4; Causes 4; Prevention 4

Personal safety 4; Eyes 4; Ears 4; Manual Lifting 4

First aid 4;

Orderly workshop habits 4; Personal Cleanliness 4; Horseplay 5; Indus­ trial Housekeeping 5

Workshop safety 5

Equipment safety 5; Hand Tools 5; Machinery 5; Electrical Equipment 6; Ladders 6; Compressed Air 6; Cranes 6

Firefighting 6; Types of fire 6

3 Engineering drawing-How to read and use 9

Types of drawing 9; General Arrangement Drawings 9; Assembly Drawings 9; Detail Drawings 9; Drawing Re-issues 9

Types of Line-Their Application and meaning 10 Projection 11; Orthoi;iraphic 11; Isometric 12

Sections 12

Scales 12

Conventional representations, symbols and abbreviations 14; Representa­tions 14; Symbols and Abbreviations 22

Dimensions 28; Units used and Placement for Dimensions 28; Dimen­sions for Screw Threads 28; Auxiliary Dimensions 28; Chamfers 28; Dimensions Not to Scale and Breaklines 29; Tabular Dimensions 29; Use of Other Markings 30

Tolerances 30; General Dimensions 30; Screw Threads 31; Geomet­ric Tolerance Symbols 31

4 Limits-Fits and tolerances 32

Types of fit 32; Clearance Fits 32; Interference Fits 32; Transition Fits 32; Summary 33

Basis for Fits 33: Individual Measuring 33; When the Hole is Produced by a Fixed Tool 33; When Standard Sized Shafting is Used 33; Summary 33

Tolerances 33; Variations in Size 33; Interchangeability of Parts 34

Definitions 34; Standard System of Limits and Fits 36; Tolerances 36; Designations of Holes, Shafts and Fits 37

Selective Assembly 38

5 Materials-Metals 49

Uses of common metals 49: Iron 49; Copper 49; Lead 49; Zinc 49;

Aluminium 49; Nickel and Chromium 49; Tin 49

Ferrous metals 49; Cast iron 49; Steel 51; Alloy steels 53

Non-ferrous metals 54; Copper and Copper Alloys 54; Nickel and Chro­mium Alloys 56; Nickel-chromium Alloys 56; Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys 56; Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 57;

6         Materials-plastics 60

Synthetic rubbers 61

Applications of some common plastics 61 Properties and uses of thermoplastics 62 Properties and uses of thermosetting materials 63

7         Heat treatment 64

Metals 64; Structural Changes in Iron on Heating and Cooling 64; Fer­rous Metals in use today 65

Tool steels 65; Schedule of Tool Steel Composition 63

Heat treatment of steels 68; Features Determining Successful Heat Treatment 68

Heat treatment of tool steels 69; Heating of Austenitize 69; Quenching, to Harden 70; Tempering 72

Constructional steels 73; Group 1 steels 73; Group 2 Steels 74

The Heat treatment of Non-ferrous metals 75; The Hardening of Non­ ferrous Alloys by Heat Treatment 76

Useful books for reference 76 Glossary of terms 76

8      Cutting fluids 83

Functions 83; Cooling 83; Lubricating 83; Chip Removing 83; Prevent­

ing Corrosion 83; Additional Properties 83

Types 83; Alkaline Solutions 83; 'Soluble' Mineral Cutting Oils 83; Oil­ less Cutting Fluids 84; 'Straight' Cutting Oils 84

Using culling fluids 84; Flow and Temperature 84; Choosing a Cutting Fluid 84; Method of Supply 84; Application 84; Filtering, Sterilizing and Reclaiming 84; Care of Electrical Equipment 86

9      Lubricants 87

Types 87; Lubricating Oils 87; Greases 87

Applying lubricants 89; Methods 89; Frequency of Application 90

10      Cutting speed and feed rate 92

Cutting speed 92; Cutting Speed and Tool Life 92; Factors Affecting Cutting Speed 92; Cutting Speed and r.p.m. 93

Feed rate 95; Factors Affecting Feed Rate 95; Feed Rate Recommen­dations 95

11       Cutting tools 96

General principles 96; Orthogonal Cutting 96; Inclined Cutting 96

Cutting tool angles: Normal rake 97; Inclination 98; Direction of Cut­ ting 98; Approach Angle and Side Cutting-edge Angle 99; End Relief Angle 100; Nose Radius 100; Clearance Angles 100

Guide to the selection of lathe tools 100

Cemented carbide tools 101; manufacture 101; Classification 101; Selec­ tion of Insert 103; Tool Design and Type of Clamping 105; Operating Conditions and Tool Life 106; Tool Failures and Remedies 109

Tools made from other materials 111; Cemented Oxide Tools 111; Dia­ mond Tools 111; Comparing Tool Materials 111

12       Benches and bench vices 112

Benches; Types 112; Construction 112; Position of the Bench 112; Tidiness 112

Engineers' vices 112; Types 112; Location of the Bench Vice 113; Spe­ cial jaws 113; Care and Use of the Vice 113

13       Fasteners 114

14       Screw threads 117

Uses 117

Screw thread terms 117

Common V-thread forms 117; ISO metric 117; Whitworth 118; British Association 119; Unified 119; V-thread calculations 119; Screw

Thread Table 119

Square-thread forms 124; Acme-thread forms 124; Trapezoidal-thread forms 124; Buttress-thread forms 124; Worm-thread forms 124

15      Hand tools 125

Files 125; Parts of a File 125; Classification 125; Using a File 128; Testing Filed Surfaces 128; Filing a Square Hole 130; Filing a Square on a Shaft 130; Care of Files 131; Files for Use Under Special Conditions 131

Chisels and chipping 131; Common Types 132; Cutting Angles 132; Using a Chisel 133

Spanners 133; Types 133

Wrenches 136; Pipe wrenches 136

Pliers 137; General purpose 137; Cutting 138; Circlip 138

Tinsnips 138; Hacksaws 138; Keys 138; Screwdrivers 139; Hammers 139; Punches 140; Wheel or bearing pullers 141; Pop riveting tools 141; Clamps 141

16       Drills and reamers 142

Drills 142; Types 142; Accessories 143; Nomenclature 144; Opera­tion 144

Reamers 150; Types 150; Nomenclature 152; Tolerances 152; Oper­ation Of Reamers Sharpening 154; Storage 154

17       Threading tools 155

Taps and dies 155; Tap range 155; Sets of Taps 155; Nomenclature 156; Sharpening 156; Using a tap 159

Screw extractors 159; Tap wrenches 159

Dies 160; Adjustable Button Dies 160; Die Nuts 160; Using a Die 161

18       Work-holding methods 162

Holding workpieces on machines 162

Clamping principles 162; Clamping Devices 162; Application of Force 162; Height of Packing 162; Position of Clamps 162; Thick­ ness of Clamps 162; Use of Washers 163; Number of Clamps and Stops 163

Types of clamps and accessories 163; Clamps for Machining 163; Machine Vices 165; General Purpose Clamps 165

19       Marking and measuring tools 167

Scribers 167; Using a Scriber 167

Dividers 167; Hermaphrodite calipers 168; Trammels 168

Surface gauges 168; Types 168; Setting 169; Using 169; Uses 169

Punches 170; Parallel strips 170; V-blocks 170; Angle plates 170; Screw jacks

171; Steel rules 171

Micrometers 171; Outside Micrometer Calipers 171; Inside Microme­ ter Calipers 174; Micrometer Depth Gauge 174; Screw-thread Micrometers 174; Care of a Micrometer 175

Verniers 175; Principle of a Vernier 175; Vernier Calipers 175; Ver- nier Height Gauges 177

Calipers 177; Taking a Measurement

Straight edges 179

Try squares 179; Testing a Try Square 179; Using a Try Square 179; Care of the Try Square 180

Combination set 180; Toolmakers square 180

Protractors 181; Vernier Protractors 181

Box square and keyseat clamps 181

Bevel gauges 181; Using a Bevel Gauge 182

Depth gauges 182; Telescoping gauges 182; Small hole gauges 183; Screw pitch gauges 183; Centre gauges 183; Feeler gauges 183; Radius gauges 183; Toolmakers buttons 184; Centre finder and wiggler 184 Indicators 184; Lever Indicators 184; Dial Indicators 185; Care of Indicators 188

20       Introduction to precision measurement 189

Systems of measurement 189

Errors in workshop measurement 189; Common Sources of Error 190

Comparative measurement 191; Use of a Dial Gauge 191; Use of a Floating Carriage Micrometer 192

The use of gauge blocks 193; Composition of Gauge Sets 193; How to Use Gauge Blocks 194; Accuracy 195; Accessories 196; Using an Optical Flat to Test Flatness of Gauge Blocks 196

Use of length bars 197

Use of balls, rollers and discs in precision measurement 198; Checking External Tapers 198; Checking Internal Tapers 199; Check­ ing Small Internal Tapers 199; Checking Dovetail Slides 199; Checking Taper Angles 199

Use of sine bars in precision movement 200; Construction 200; Principle and Application 200; Accuracy of Sine Bars 200; Sine Centres 200

Use of spirit levels in precision measurement 201; Construction and Use 201; Reading a Level 201

Use of clinometers in precision movement 202; Mechanical Clinometers 202; Optical Clinometers 202

The digital readout system 202

21       Operational planning 203

Planning machining operations 203; Importance of Planning 203; Information Needed 203; Planning Procedure 203

22       Principles of marking out work 206

Purpose of marking out 206

Types of line 206; Datum Lines 206; Centre Lines 206; Outlines 206

Tools and equipment 207

Marking-out procedure 208; Inspection Before Marking Out 208; Prepar­ ing the Work 209

Permanent establishment of lines 210

23       Cut-off machines 211

Power hacksaws 211; Reciprocating Hacksaw 211; Automatic Bar-Feed Reciprocating Hacksaw 212

Horizontal handsaw 212

The abrasive cut-off saw 212 The friction saw 213

The cold circular saw 213; The Blade 213

24       The vertical handsaw 215

Description 215; Machine Capacity 216

Operating the handsaw 217; Drive System 217; Job Selector 217; The Table 217; Installing the Blade 217

Attachments 219

Welding blades 220; Welding Operating 221; Annealing Operation 221

Selection of blades 222; Pitch of Teeth 222; Blade Size 222

25       Drilling machines 224

Types of drilling machine 224; Bench Drill 224; Pillar Drill 224; Radial Drill 224; Multi-spindle Drill 225

Setting up and holding work 225; Using a Machine Vice 226; Clamped to the Machine Table 226; Clamped to an Angle Plate 226; Clamped on V-blocks 226

Drilling a hole to marking out 226

26       Centre lathes 228

Units of a centre lathe 228; The Bed 228; The Headstock 229; The Tail­ stock 231; The Saddle or Carriage 231; Feeding Mechanism 233

Facing and boring lathes 236

27      Capstan and turret lathes 237

General features and uses 237; Capstan Lathe 237; Turret Lathe 238

Parts of a capstan or turret lathe 238; The Mid-saddle 238; The Head- stock 238; Stop Systems 238; Bar Feed Mechanism 239

Work-holding methods 239; Bar Feed Work 239; Chuck Work 239

Cutting methods 240; Single Cutting Operations 240; Multiple Cutting Operations 240; Combined Cutting Operations 240

Cutting tools 240; Turret Tools 240; Mid-saddle Tools 244

Setting an operations sequence 244

28      Lathe operations-Turning 247

Mounting and removing chuck, faceplate, driving plate and centre 247; Fit­ ting the Chuck, Faceplate and Driving Plate 247; Remove the Chuck, Faceplate and Driving Plate 248

Chuck work 248; Four-jaw Independent Chuck 248; Three-jaw Self­centering Chuck 251

Faceplate work 251; Methods of Holding Work 251

Turning between centres 253; General Description 253; Types of Lathe Centre 254; Centre Drilling 254; Aligning Lathe Centres 256; Setting the Workpiece Between Centres 257

Setting the cutting tool 257; Overhang and Rigidity 257; Height of Cut­

ting tool 258; Setting the Approach Angle 259

Turning a stepped spindle 260; Turning the Diameters 260; Turning the Lengths 260

Taper turning 261; Using a Form Tool 261; Using the Top-Slide 262;

Using a Taper Turning Attachment 263; Taper Turning by Off­ setting the Tailstock 264

Form turning 264; Free-hand Form Turning 264; Form Turning with

Tools 265

Drilling in the lathe 267

Threading with taps and dies 268; Using Taps with a Centre Hole 268; Tapping Using Small Taps 268; Threading with a Buttonhole Die 268; Threading with Hand Dies 269

Boring operations 269; Uses 269; Types of Tool 269; Shape of the Tool 270; Boring a Parallel Hole 271; Boring a Tapered Hole 271 Reaming in the lathe 273; Work Preparation 273; Using a Machine

Reamer 273; Using a Hand Reamer 273

Knurling 274; Knurling Tools 274; Method of Use 274

Parting off 274; Holding the Workpiece 274; Parting-off Tools 275; Procedure 276

Work requiring steady rests 276; Fixed Steady Rest 276; Travelling Steady Rest 278; Problems with Unstable Work 278

Work requiring use of mandrels 278; Mandrel use 278; Types 279

Copy turning 280; Methods 280; The Hydraulic Attachment 280; Ele­ments of Copy Turning 281; Masters 283; The Cutting Tool 284; Holding and Driving the Work 285; Setting Up 285; General Comments 286

29      Lathe operations-Setting up and cutting threads 289

Preparing the blank 289

Preparing the lathe 289; Setting Up the Machine 290; Metric Pitches from Inch-based Lead Screws 290; Gear Settings for Non­ metric Threads 291

Grinding the screw-cutting tools 291; Tool Shape and Angles 291; Grinding the tool 293

Setting the tool; Requirements 294; Procedure 294

Registering the screwing tool 295; Tool Register 295

Cutting external threads 297; Setting the Speed 297; Thread-cutting Methods 297; Cutting the Thread 299; Finishing Thread Ends 299

Cutting internal threads 300; The Blank 300; Setting the Machine 300; Tool Sharpening and Setting 300; Cutting the Thread 300

Multiple-start threads 300; Some Characteristics 300; Applications 302; Change Gear Calculations 302; Sharpening Tools 304; Set­ ting Up the Tool 306; Indexing the Starts 306

Worm gears 308

30       Vertical boring machines 309

General features 309; Size 309; Additional Features 309; Types 309 Parts of a vertical boring machine 309; The Bed 309; The Work Table or Chuck 310; The Cross-rail 310; The Toolhead 310; The Tool

Blocks 310

Use of vertical boring machines 310; Advantages 311; Machining Tech­niques 311; Types of Cutting Tool 311

31      The Shaping machine 312

Construction and operation 312; Classification 312; Column-type Crank 312

Methods of holding work 314; In the Vice 314; On the Table 316; In V­

blocks 316; On Angle Plates 316

Operating the machine 316; Setting the Stroke Length 317; Position­ ing the Stroke 317; Setting the Speed 317; Setting the Cut 317; Setting the Feed 318; Shaping the work 319

Basic Shaping Operations 319; Square and Parallel Surfaces 319; Squar­ ing the Ends 319; Shaping a Vertical Surface 319; Horizontal and Vertical Shaping 319; Shaping Angular Surfaces 319; Shaping a V-block 320; Shaping a Dovetail Slide 320

32      The slotting machine 321

Construction and operation 312; Classification 321; General Purpose Slot­ ting Machine 321

Basic slotting operations 322; Holding the Workpiece 322; Slotting a Parallel Keyway 323; Slotting a Tapered Keyway 323; Cutting an Internal Slot 323; Slotting a Large Internal Cavity 323; Straight and Circular Slotting 324

33      The planing machine 325

Construction and operation 325; Classification 325; Double Housing Plan­ ing Machine 326

Holding and setting work 326; Checking the Machine 326; Holding the Work 326

Basic planing operations 326; Planing Horizontal Surfaces 326; Plan­ ing Vertical Surfaces 326; Planing Horizontal and Vertical Sur­ faces 327; Planing an Angular Surface 327

34       Milling machines 328

The knee-type mill 328; Plain Milling Machine 328; Universal Machine 328; Vertical Machine 328

Bed-type mills 329;

Types of arbors and adaptors 330; Plain Arbor 330; Shell End Mill and Face Mill Arbor 330; Adaptors 331; Direct Mounting of Cutter to Spindle 332

Types and uses of cutters 332; Types of Cutter 332

Milling cutter design 336; Milled Type Teeth 336; Form-relieved-type teeth 338; Cemented Carbide Cutters 339; Inserted Tooth Cut­ ters 340

Methods of milling 340; Normal or Up-Cut 340; Climb or Down-Cut 341;

Application to End Milling 341

Mounting the cutter 341; Arbor-type Cutters 341; Shank-type Cutters 342

Cutting speeds and feeds 342; Speeds 342; Feeds 344

Method of holding work 344; On the Machine Table 344; In a Vice 346; In a V-block 347; In an Indexing Head 347

Milling machine attachments 348; Vertical Attachment 348; Universal Attachment 348; Slotting Attachment 349; Other Attachments 349

Care and use of cutters and equipment 350; Cutters 350; Equipment and Machine 351

35      Milling operations 1 352

Flat surfaces 352; Work Held in a Vice 352; Held on a Machine Table 353

Milling keyways 354

Milling a T-slot 356; The Cutters 356

Straddle milling 356; The Cutters 357

Gang milling 357; The Cutters 357

Indexing 358; Types of Head 358; Parts of a Universal Head 358; Methods of Indexing 360

36      Milling operations 2 364

Spiral or helical milling 364; Principle 365; Drive 365; Calculating Lead 366; The Helix 366; Checking the Change Gear Assembly 367; Selecting the Cutter 367; Setting the Machine-Table 368; Set­ ting the Cutter 369; Cutting Helical Flutes 370

Milling sides and end llu1es 371; Holding the Work 371; Selecting the Cutter 371; Setting the Indexing Head 372; Cutting the Flutes 373

Copy milling 373; The Model 373; Copy Milling Machines 374; Setting the Work 374; The Pantograph Machine 374

37       The horizontal boring and milling machine 375

Types of machine 375; Floor Type 375; Table Type 375

Features of construction 375; The Bed 376; The Column 376; The Spin­ dle Head 376; The Universal All-angle Milling Head 377; The Facing and Boring Head 377; The Carriage 377; The Boring Stay 378; Positioning 378

Basic machining operations 378; Boring 378; Facing 380; Turning 381;

Machining holes 382

Special advantages of the horizontal boring machine 382 Care of the machine 382

38       Types and elements of gearing 383

Applications of toothed gearing 383; Application to Parallel Shafts 383; Application to Crossed Shafts in Parallel Planes 384; Appli­ cation to Intersecting Shafts 385

Gear tooth profile 386; Development of Involute Curves 386

Gear terminology 389; For Spur Gears 389; For Helical Gears 391; Terminology for Worm Gearing 391

Gearing systems; ISO metric 20° Involute 392; British Standard 20° Involute 392; American Standard 14½° Full Depth Involute 392; American Standard 20° Full Depth Involute 392; Ameri­ can Standard 14½° Composite 392; American Standard 20° Stub Tooth Involute 393; Summary of Gear Systems 394

Relationship between Metric Module Pitch, Diametral Pitch and Transverse Pitch 394; Metric Module System 394; Diametral Pitch System 394; Transverse Pitch System 394

39       Cutting of gears by the milling process 395

Cutting a spur gear 395; Preparation of the Blank 395; Selecting the Cutter 395; Mounting the Cutter 396; Setting Cutter to Depth 397; Application of Simple Indexing 397; Cutting Spaces to Form Teeth 397

Cutting a short spur rack 397; Holding the Work 397; Setting the Cutter 398

Cutting a long spur rack 399; Holding the work 399; Holding the Cutter 399; Indexing the Flutes 399

Cutting a helical gear 400; Effect of Helix Angle 400; Calculations 400; Setting up and Cutting 403

Culling a short helical rack 403; Holding the Work 403; Setting the Cutter 403; Indexing the Teeth 404; Cutting the Teeth 404; Cutting a Worm 404

40       Grinding wheels 406

Wheel markings 406; General Marking System 406

Selecting the grinding wheel 408; Features to be Considered 408

Wheel mounting, balancing and trueing 410; Inspection 410; Mounting

44       Tool and cutter grinding 446

Tool and cutter grinding machine 446; Principal Features 447; Mount­ ing the Wheel 448; Grinding Square and Parallel Surfaces 448 Grinding angular surfaces on cutting tools and gauges 448; Grinding An­

gular Surfaces 449; Compound Angles 451

General information about grinding milled tooth cutters 451; Grinding Wheel Shapes 451; Milled Tooth Cutters 451; Form-relieved Cutters 451; Need for Sharp Cutters 452; Clearance Angles for Milled Cutters 452; Holding the Cutter 453; Methods of Grinding Clearance Angles 453

Grinding straight-tooth milling cutters 457; Requirements 457; Holding the Cutter 457; Preparing the Grinding Wheel 457; Locating the Tooth Rest 458; Grinding the Teeth 458

Grinding helical flute milling cutters 459; Requirements 459; Holding the Cutter 459; Preparing the Grinding Wheel 459; Locating the Tooth Rest 459; Grinding the Teeth 460

Grinding side or end teeth on cutters 461; Requirements 461; Holding the Cutter 461; Setting the Workhead 461; Locating the Tooth Rest 461; Grinding the Teeth 462

Reconditioned milled cutters 462; Grinding the Tooth Face and Gullet 462; Grinding the Clearance Angles 463

Grinding form-relieved milling cutters 463; Requirements 464; Holding and Setting the Cutter 464; Grinding the Tooth Face 464; Shar­ pening Hobs 464; Sharpening Form-relieved End Mills 465

Grinding reamers 465

Sharpening taps 465

45       Centreless grinding 466

Introduction 467

Basic types of grinder 468

Design of the grinder 469; Grinding-wheel Bearings 469; Regulating­ wheel Bearings 470; Workrest Blade 470; Slides and their Feed Devices 470; Dressing Devices 470; Balancing the Grind­ ing Wheels; Grinding and Regulating Wheels 472

Technique of centreless grinding 472; Through-feed Grinding 472; In­ feed Grinding 473

411; Balancing 411; Trueing and Dressing 412

Safe Use of Grinding Wheels 413; Safety guide 413; Care and storage 413 Other abrasives 413; Oil Stones and Hone Stones 413; Coated Abra­ sives 413; Dressing Sticks 414; CBN Grinding Wheels 414;

Diamond Grinding Wheels 414

46       Honing and Lapping

Honing 475 Lapping 475

47       Economical use of machine tools

Introduction 477

41      Off-hand grinding Mounting the wheel 415 Other wheels 415

Action of a cutting tool 477; Shear Angle 477

Life of a cutting tool 478; Tool Failure 478; Factors Affecting Tool Life 478

Use of available power 479

Power requirements for turning operations 479

42      Surface grinding 417

Surface grinding machines 417; Horizontal Spindle Machines 417; Ver­ tical Spindle Machines 418; Comparison of Finish 419

Wheel selection and care 419; Choice of Wheel 419; Trueing the Wheel 421

Grinding allowance 421

Work-holding methods 421; Magnetic Chucks 421; Clamps 424; Vices

424; Angle Plates 424; Fixtures 424; Specially Designed Mag­ netic Fixtures

Grinding of the surface 424; Plane Surfaces 424; Angular Surfaces 425;

Recesses 426; Formed Surfaces 427

Problems with surface grinding 428; Grinding Thin Work 428

43      Cylindrical grinding 429

Cylindrical grinding machines 429; Plain Grinders 429; Universal 430

Work preparation and holding 433; Grinding Allowance 433; Work Centres 434; Work Holding 435

Grinding a spindle parallel 435; Operating the Machine 435; Preparing the Wheel 436; Setting up the Work 436; Setting up the Machine 436

Grinding a shoulder 437; Grinding to a Shoulder 437; Grinding the Shoul­

der 438

Taper grinding 438; By Swivelling the Table 439; By Swivelling the Workhead 439; By Swivelling the Wheelhead 440; By Plunge Cut Grinding 440

Form grinding 441; Plunge Cut 441

Internal grinding 441; Attachment 441; Types of Machine 442; Mount­ ing the Work 444; Wheel Selection and Care 444; Grinding a Parallel Bore 444; Grinding a Taper Bore 445

Economical machining using high-speed steel 480

Economical use of the milling machine 480; Calculations 481

48       Fitting 482

Fitting of mating parts 482; General Principles for Fitting Accurate Mating Parts 482; Fitting a Fixed Feather Key 482; Fitting a Tapered Key 482

Scrapers and scraping 483; Purpose 483; Types and Uses 483; Scrap­ ing Flat Surfaces 486; Scraping Curved Surfaces 486

Friction 486; Efficiency 486; Methods of Reducing Friction 486; Fric­tional Values for Metals in Contact 486; Types of Friction 487

Bearings 488; Bearing Loading 488; Types of Plain Bearing 488

Oil seals, packing and joints 489; Oil Seals 489; Glands and Reciprocat­ ing Seals 491; Packing 493; Jointing 493

Selling up machines 494; Levelling 494; Spindle Bearing Adjustments 495; Slide Adjustments 496

Thread repair kits 497

49       Keys, keyways, splines and pins 499

Keys and keyways 499; Sunk Key 499; Sliding Key Retained in Wheel 499; Woodruff Key 500; Saddle Key 500; Scotch Key 500; Key

Proportions 500

Splines 501; Pins 501

50       Ball and roller bearings 502

Bearing designations 502; Supplementary Designations 502

Bearing checks during operation 503 Inspection during non-operation 504

Dismounting bearings 505; Interference Fit on Shaft 505; Interference Fit in Housing 506; Bearings Mounted on Sleeves 506; Inspect­ ing Dismounted Bearings 506

Bearing damage 508

Mounting bearings 511; Interference Fit on Shaft 511; Interference Fit in Housing 512; Cylindrical Roller Bearings 512; Taper Roller Bearings 512; Bearings on Sleeves 514; Applying Lubricant 516; Test Running 517

Lubrication instructions 517; Grease Lubrication 518; Oil Lubrication 518

Mounting and dismounting tools 519; Hydraulic Tools 519; Mechanical Tools 519

Fits and tolerances for shaft and housing 519 Abutment and fillet dimensions 520

51      Power transmission 528

Line shafts 528

Flat belts 528; Flat Belt Pulleys 528

V-belts 528; V-belts for Pulleys 529; Assembly of the Drive 529

Taper Bushes 529

Roller chains 530; Sprockets 531; Chain Drives 531; Measuring Chain Wear 531

Silent chains 532; Toothed Belt 532

Couplings 532; Compression Coupling 532; Flexible Coupling-disc Types 533; Flexible Coupling-Spider Type 533; Chain Coupling 533

Universal joints 534

Clutches 534; Dog-tooth Clutch 534; Cone-type 534; Expanding Shoe Type 535; Plate Type 535; Toggle Action Linkage 535; Cen­ trifugal Clutches 535; Magnetic Clutches 536; Sprag Clutches 536; Brakes 536

Gearboxes and gear motors 536

52      Lifting and slinging 537

Slinging practice 537; Introduction 537; Basic Materials 537; Basic Con- figurations 537

Some dangers with temporary slings 537 Knots, bends and hitches 539

Factors affecting the safe working load 539; Capacities of Two-leg Slings 540; Other Factors Affecting SWL 541

Eyebolls 542; Dangers 542; Uses 542

Plate-handling devices 543; Vertical Handling 543

Turning over of loads 543

Points to remember 544; Do 544; Don't 544

Australian standards 545

53      Welding 546

Soldering, brazing and bronze welding 546; Soldering 546; Brazing 546; Bronze Welding 546

Pressure welding 546; Spot Welding 547; Seam Welding 547; Butt

Welding 547

Fusion welding 547; Oxyacetylene 547; Shielded Metallic Arc 550;

M.I.G. 552; T.I.G. 553

Profile cutting of steel 553; Equipment 553; Procedure 554; Defects 554; Methods 554

Setting up for welding 554; Welding Fixtures 554; Clamping and Tack

Welding 555

Methods of surfacing using welding 555; Introduction 555; Reclamation 555; Metallizing 555

54      Toolmaking 556

Toolroom functions 556; Factors Affecting the Toolmaker 556; Duties and Skills of the Toolmaker 556; Types of Toolmaking 557

Press toolmaking 557; Use of Press Tools 557; Basic Press-working

Operations 557; Types of Die 559; The Blanking Die 559; Action of Blanking and Piercing Dies 561

Diemaking for plastics and diecasting 562; Basic Principles of Compres­sion and Injection Moulding 562; Simple Compression Mould­ ing Dies 563; Simple Injection Moulding Dies 565

Pressure diecasting 565; Hot Chamber 565; Simple Dies 566

Tool and gauge making 566; Mass Production and Interchangeability 566; Tools and Gauges used in Mass Production 566; Basic Principles of Limit Gauge Design 570; Work Tolerance and Gauge Tolerance 570; Determining Limit Gauge Tolerance 571; Basic Skills 571

56       Fluid power-industrial pneumatics 573

Air and related laws 573; Pressure Measurement 574; The Gas Laws 574

Compressed air production 574; Air-production Unit 574; Graphic

Representation 575; Air Production Components 576

Compressed air systems 576; Basic Circuit Components 579; Circuit Development Techniques 579

57       Fluid power-hydraulics 582

History 582

Features of hydraulic systems 582; Properties of Fluids 583; Advantages of Hydraulic Power 583; Problems and Limitations 583; Units and Formulae 583

Classes and properties of hydraulic fluids 584; Classes 584; Properties 584

Hydraulic pumps 585; Types 585; Displacement 586; Examples of

Pumps 586

Hydraulic valves 590; Relief 590; Unloading 591; Sequence 592; Flow

Control 592; Directional Control 593

Basic symbols for fluid power equipment 594

58       Steam 596

59       Numerical control machine tools 597

Introduction 597

What is numerical control 597

General features 597; Basic Components 597; Coordinate Systems and Machine Motions 598; Absolute and Incremental Positioning 599

Computerized numerical control 600; Direct Control 600; Data Input 600; NC Tape Codes 601

Manual programming 603; Preparing the Program 603; Program Verifi­ cation 605; Machine Operation 605

Computer-assisted programming 605; CAD/CAM 605; Computer Integrated Manufacture 606

60       Portable power tools 607

Power tool safety 607

Power sources 607; Mains Supply 607; High-frequency Electricity Supply 607; Compressed Air 608

Drills 608; Attachments 608

Grinders 609; The Angle Grinder 609; Straight Grinder 609; Die Grinder 610

Power hammers 610; Nibblers and shears 611; Circular saws 611; Jigsaws 611; Power wrenches 612

61       Preventive maintenance and care of machines and tools 613

Preventive machine maintenance 613; Maintenance Roster and Chart 613; Preventing Damage 613

Preventive tool maintenance 613; Importance of Trained Operators 614

Machine care and usage 614; Checking Machines 614; Checking Tools 614

62       Report writing 615

The memo 615; Production of Memos 615

Writing short reports 615; Report Layout 615; A Sample Report 616

Standard forms and work tickets 617

63      Measurement of gear teeth 620

Gear tooth vernier method 620; Setting the Gear Tooth Vernier 620; Reading the Table 620; Using the Gear Tooth Vernier 620

Span measurement 621; Advantages of Span Measurement 621; Cal­culating Span Measurements 621; Backlash 621

64       Gear cutting by generating processes 623

Generating processes 623; The Rack Cutter Process 623; Pinion Cutter Process 624; The Hobbing Process 625

Types of hobbing machines 626; The Vertical-type Hobbing Machine 626; The Horizontal-type Hobbing Machine 627

Hobbing a spurgear 627; Selecting, Mounting, and Setting the Hob 627;

Preparing and Mounting the Blank 628; Index Change Gears 630; Cutting the Teeth 631

Hobbing a worm wheel by in-feed method 632; Types of Worm Wheel 632; Preparation of Worm Wheel Blanks 632; Selection of the

Hob 632; Hobbing the Worm Wheel 633; Laminations of the

55 Springs and their uses

Types of spring 572; Spring materials 572

In-feed Method 633

Ready-find Index 634

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RMIT University acknowledges the people of the Woi wurrung and Boon wurrung language groups of the eastern Kulin Nation on whose unceded lands we conduct the business of the University. RMIT University respectfully acknowledges their Ancestors and Elders, past and present. RMIT also acknowledges the Traditional Custodians and their Ancestors of the lands and waters across Australia where we conduct our business. - Artwork created by Louisa Bloomer